Sunday, March 16, 2008

Hindi grammar...Kriya, Kaal aur Vachya

A. Kinds of Verbs:

Sakarmak Kriya (Transitive Verb) - These cause direct effect on another person/object. These are of two types-

  • Preranarthak Kriya (Causative Verb)
  • Dwikarmak Kriya (Verbs with two objects)

Akarmak Kriya (Intransitive Verb) - Have no effect on others.

B. Kaal (Tense)

Bhoot Kal (Past tense)
  1. Samanya Bhoot(Past Indefinite)
  2. Aasann Bhoot(Past Imminent)
  3. Apurn Bhoot(Past Continuous)
  4. Purna Bhoot(Past Perfect)
  5. Sandigdh Bhoot(Past Doubtful)
  6. Hetuhetumad Bhoot(Past Conditional)

Vartman Kal(Present tense)
  1. Samanya Vartman (Present Indefinite)
  2. Apurn Vartman(Present Continuous)
  3. Sandigdh Vartman (Present Doubtful)

Bhavishya kal (Future tense)
  1. Samanya Bhavishya (Future Indefinite)
  2. Sambhabya Bhavishya (Future Conditional or Doubtful)

C. Vachya (Voice)

Kartri Vachya (Active Voice)
Karm Vachya (Passive Voice)
Bhav Vachya (Impersonal Voice)

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